From the Princeton Weekly Bulletin, May 26, 1997
Aarsleff, Anderson, Clark, Gross,
Jameson, Kuenne, Taylor transfer
to emeritus status
Seven members of the faculty are transferring to emeritus status in 1996-97: Hans Aarsleff in English, Philip Anderson and David Gross in Physics, Robert Clark in Art and Archaeology, Antony Jameson in Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Robert Kuenne in Economics, and Edward Taylor in Chemistry.
Aarsleff, professor of English, specializes in the history of the study of language and the understanding of how that study draws on conceptions of the nature of language, especially in theological and philosophical terms. He has been a member of the Princeton faculty since 1956.
Born in Denmark, Aarsleff began his study of English language and literature at the University of Copenhagen and earned his bachelor's degree in 1945. In 1948 he won a graduate fellowship to the University of Minnesota, where he spent the next eight years, helping support himself by summer jobs with traveling amusement parks--an experience he says had a profound effect on his way of looking at things. He earned his MA in 1951 and completed his PhD in 1960. His dissertation on The Study of Language in England, 1780-1860 was published in 1967 and reissued 1983.
Aarsleff's work has included major essays on Leibniz, Locke, Condillac, Wilhelm von Humboldt, Descartes and Herder. In 1982 a selection of his essays was published in From Locke to Saussure: Essays in the Study of Language and Intellectual History . He contributed essays on John Wilkins and Thomas Sprat, among others, to the Dictionary of Scientific Biography conceived and edited by Dayton Stockton Professor of History, Emeritus, C. C. Gillispie. In 1991 his work was the subject of a conference at the Sorbonne that resulted in a volume of essays, La Linguistique entre mythe et histoire (1993).
At Princeton Aarsleff has taught in many courses, from large lectures on American, English and European literatures to courses on Old English, Old Norse and Medieval Literature and seminars in the history of the study of language.
Aarsleff has served as a member of the Journal of the History of Ideas board of editors since 1979 and board of directors since 1981, and is a member of the advisory board of History of the Human Sciences . He is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, a member of the American Philosophical Society and a foreign member of the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters.
Aarsleff plans to continue living in Princeton and says he has "plenty of work to keep me busy."
Anderson, Joseph Henry Professor of Physics, is a major figure in the development of the quantum theory of solids and fluids. In 1977 he was co-winner of the Nobel Prize for physics.
Anderson has made major contributions to the theories of magnetism, superconductivity, superfluidity and disordered solids. His studies of magnetism include early work on antiferromagnetism and superexchange and later work on magnetic impurities, and the theory of spin glasses.
In the field of superconductivity, he clarified the basic nature of the superconducting state, its gauge invariance, confinement of magnetic fields and broken symmetry--concepts essential to the "standard model" of high-energy particle physics. He made essential contributions to the understanding of electron tunneling and explained various effects of impurities on superconductivity. He was also among the first to explore anisotropic generalizations of the usual superconducting state, predicting that they would occur in the liquid of the light isotope of helium.
Anderson introduced the fundamental concept of electron localiza tion, the breakdown of quantum conduction in strongly disordered materials, and his work in this area founded the subject of quantum transport in disordered or irregular structures or materials.
Anderson earned his 1943 BS and his 1949 PhD at Harvard University, with a two-year wartime interruption to work at the Naval Research Laboratory. His dissertation adviser was John Van Vleck, with whom he later shared the Nobel prize along with Sir Nevill Mott. In 1949 he went to Bell Telephone Labs, where he worked until 1984. Starting in 1967, he was also a half-time professor of physics, first at Cambridge University and then, starting in 1975, at Princeton, where he was appointed to the Henry chair in 1978 and became full-time in 1984.
Among Anderson's many honors and awards in addition to the Nobel Prize are the National Medal of Science (1982), the Dannie Heineman Prize (1975), the Guthrie Medal and Prize (1978) and the Bardeen Prize (1997). He is a fellow of the American Physical Society, American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the National Academy of Science, and a foreign member of the Royal Society, the Accademia Lincei and the academies of Japan, India and Russia. He is also an honorary fellow of Jesus College, Cambridge.
Anderson is a member of the external faculty of the Santa Fe Institute, with which he has been involved since its establishment in the late '80s. He has written a book "on the theory of High Tc superconductivity in the cuprates PUP, which is about to come out," he says, and he plans "to continue active work on interacting many-electron systems and other problems in condensed matter physics, as well as studies of complexity in other forms, such as prebiotic evolution."
Clark, professor of art and architecture, is an expert in the field of architecture and the decorative arts from 1750 to the present. He earned his BA in art history at the University of California, Berkeley, in 1960; an MA from Stanford in 1964; and MFA (1966) and PhD degrees (1974) from Princeton. He joined the faculty as assistant professor in 1968, becoming assocociate professor in 1975 and professor in 1988.
Clark's teaching at Princeton included lectures and seminars in modern architecture and on the arts of the United States. Especially popular were his undergraduate seminars on the American house and Mellon Seminars for students working on dissertations in history of art.
In 1972 he directed the exhibition at the Art Museum, "The Arts and Crafts Movement in America, 1876-1916," which traveled to the Art Institute of Chicago and the Renwick Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC. Its catalog, of which he was editor and coauthor, was reissued in 1992. Clark's most recent publication is a chapter on Louis C. Mullgardt in Toward a Simpler Way of Life: The Arts&Crafts Movement of California (1997).
Clark and his family now live in Lafayette, Calif., where he is devoting time and energy to the restoration and preservation of buildings of the nearby San Francisco Bay area and completing a monograph on Austro-German architect Joseph Maria Olbrich. Clark continues to focus on architects born circa 1870 and "how that international generation turned the century a century ago."
Gross, Thomas D. Jones Professor of Mathematical Physics, is a leading theoretical physicist.
He is one of the founders of quantum chromodynamics, the theory of the strong nuclear interactions in fundamental particle physics, which is a keystone of the Standard Model of particle physics. Gross is co-discoverer with his graduate student Frank Wilczek of asymptotic freedom, which implies that the force between quarks weakens at short distance and strenthens at large distance. A unique property of quantum chromodynamics, asymptotic freedom provides tools that enable precise calculations and predictions of the high energy behavior of the theory, as well as a mechanism for the permanent confinement of the quarks within nucleons. Gross has made many fundamental contributions to the development of quantum chromodynamics and quantum field theory.
A pioneer in string theory, which brings general relativity into the quantum framework, Gross later led the team that devised the heterotic string theory, which yields the most realistic unified string theory and which has been central to the continuing development of the theory.
A U.S. citizen, Gross took his undergraduate degree at Hebrew University in Jerusalem in 1962 and his PhD at the University of California, Berkeley in 1966. From 1966 to 1969 he was a Junior Fellow at Harvard. After joining the Princeton faculty as assistant professor in 1969, he advanced to associate professor in 1971 and full professor in 1973. He was named Eugene Higgins Professor of theoretical physics in 1986 and Jones Professor in 1996.
Gross taught courses at all levels, from freshman physics to advanced graduate courses, and is especially known for his graduate courses on quantum field theory. Many of his graduate students and postdoctoral collaborators have become influential theoretical physicists.
Recipient of a 1987 MacArthur Foundation Fellowship, Gross is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Physical Society and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Among his honors and awards are the 1986 Sakurai Prize of the American Physical Society and the 1988 Dirac Medal.
Gross has moved to California to become director of the Institute for Theoretical Physics at the University of California, Santa Barbara.
Jameson, James S. McDonnell Distinguished University Professor of Aerospace Engineering, is an expert on computational aerodynamics. He pioneered in the creation of computer models that simulate the aerodynamics of an aircraft as it approaches the speed of sound.
Jameson was born in England. After serving two years in the British Army, he attended Cambridge University, earning his undergraduate degree in 1958 and his PhD in magnetohydrodynamics in 1963.
After a year of work as an economist for the Trades Union Congress and another as chief mathematician at Hawker Siddeley Dynamics, in 1966 Jameson joined Grumman Aerospace Corp. in New York. In 1972 he moved to the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences at New York University, and in 1974 he was appointed professor of computer science at NYU. He came to Princeton as professor of mechanical and aresopace engineering in 1980, and in 1982 he was named to the McDonnell professorship. During the last decade, Jameson has devised a variety of new schemes for solving the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations for inviscid and viscous compressible flows and has written a series of computer programs now widely used in the aircraft industry. He and co-workers succeeded in calculating the flow past a complete aircraft in 1985, using a new finite element method.
Jameson received the 1980 NASA Medal for Exceptional Scientific Achievement in recognition of his early work on transonic potential flow, the 1988 Gold Medal of the British Royal Aeronautical Society for his contribution to the development of methods for the calculation of transonic flow over real aircraft configurations, and the 1995 Spirit of St. Louis Medal for contributions to computational fluid dynamics and the development of computer programs.
A fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, he received their Fluid Dynamics Award in 1993. An honorary fellow of Trinity Hall, Cambridge, he is a fellow of the Royal Society of London and a foreign associate of the National Academy of Engineering. In 1996 he was given the Theodorsen Lectureship Award by ICASE/NASA, Langley.
Jameson is now Jones Professor of Engineering in the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics at Stanford University.
Kuenne, professor of economics, has been a member of the Princeton faculty since 1956. His research and teaching centers on the analysis of large scale systems in a variety of contexts, including general oligopolistic equilibrium and such military problems as optimal submarine deployment. He studied the OPEC cartel as a Fulbright Research Fellow at the University of Vienna and has conducted systems research in regional economic interdependence, hospital costs and the use of warranties in military procurement.
Kuenne has received fellowships from the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations, National Institutes of Health and National Endowment for the Humanities, and is an honorary fellow of the European Economics and Financial Centre, University of London.
After serving in the U.S. Army from 1943 to 1946, Kuenne earned a bachelor's degree in journalism from the University of Missouri in 1947 and BA and MA degrees from Washington University in St. Louis in 1948 and 1949. He received his PhD in economics from Harvard in 1953.
After teaching for two years at Harvard, he came to Princeton as assistant professor in 1956, advancing to associate professor in 1960 and professor in 1969. In 1985 he received an honorary PhD from the University of Umea in Sweden for his contributions to economic science.
At Princeton, he taught General Equilibrium Theory at the graduate level and microeconomic theory in the undergraduate program. He designed and taught for 30 years a course entitled Analyses of Capitalism (cross-listed in Humanistic Studies), which used works of fiction, social criticism, social philosophy and economics to examine the attacks upon and defenses of capitalism.
Kuenne's military service in Europe left him with an abiding interest in defense affairs. He was Visiting Professor in Military Systems Analysis at the U.S. Army War College from 1968 to 1985 and served as a member of the Scientific and Management Advisory Committee of the U. S. Army Computer Command from 1971 to 1974. He has been a consultant at the Institute for Defense Analyses for 30 years.
Kuenne has published numerous scholarly articles, published in two volumes in 1992: one volume dedicated to papers in general equilibrium theory and the other to those in oligopoly theory. Among his 14 books are The Theory of General Economic Equilibrium (1963); Microeconomic Theory of the Market Mechanism (1965); Rivalrous Consonance: A Theory of General Oligo-polistic Equilibrium (1986); and Economic Justice in American Society (1993).
He serves on the boards of editors of the Journal of Regional Science , Energy Economics , Annals of Regional Science , and Advances in Spatial and Network Economics , among others. He is a member of the Regional Science Association and the U. S. Naval Institute and Naval Submarine League.
Kuenne's future plans include contining with active consulting and finishing a book entitled "The Integrated Battleground: Price and Nonprice Rivalry in Oligopoly." Taylor, A. Barton Hepburn Professor of Organic Chemistry, is an authority on synthetic methodology in organic and heterocyclic chemistry. Among his research interests are heterocyclic chemistry, organic synthesis, natural products, medicinal chemistry and photochemistry. His work has demonstrated that rational syntheses of complex systems can be devised by sequential condensation, ring cleavage and rearrangement reactions, and he has developed many new methods which have made possible the preparation of numerous natural products and biologically active compounds. His lab recently designed and synthesized a series of cytotoxic enzyme inhibitors, three of which have reached advanced stage worldwide clinical evaluation for the treatment of solid tumors.
Taylor attended Hamilton College for two years and then transferred in 1944 to Cornell University, where he received his 1946 AB and his 1949 PhD. After a year as a postdoctoral fellow in Zurich, Switzerland, and another at the University of Illinois, he was appointed to the Illinois faculty in 1951. In 1954 he moved to Princeton, where he became professor in 1964 and Hepburn Professor in 1966. He chaired the Chemistry Department from 1973 to 1979.
His teaching at Princeton has included many courses in organic chemistry at both the undergraduate and graduate levels, including heterocyclic chemistry and organic synthesis. He recently taught freshman chemistry for the first time--"and loved it," he says.
Taylor is author of two editions of Principles of Heterocyclic Chemistry and of a monograph on The Chemistry of Enaminonitriles and o -Aminonitriles (coauthored with A. McKillop, one of his former postdoctoral students), and has edited more than 70 volumes on heterocyclic and organic chemistry. He has written nearly 450 research publications, holds 47 U.S. patents and has produced both a 24-hour film course and an audio course on heterocyclic chemistry, distributed by the American Chemical Society. For five decades he has served as a consultant to the research divisions of major chemical and pharmaceutical industries, as an expert witness in pharmaceutical patent litigation, and as a member of the editorial advisory boards of various chemical journals.
Taylor has received Fulbright, Guggenheim and National Science Foundation fellowships and the Alexander von Humboldt U. S. Scientist Prize. Among his awardsare the American Chemical Society's Award for Creative Work in Synthetic Organic Chemistry and their Cope Scholar Award, the Fifth International Award in Heterocyclic Chemistry, and the Gowland Hopkins Medal. Hamilton College awarded him an honorary degree in 1968.
As emeritus professor, Taylor intends to continue the work he has been doing, especially the cancer chemotherapy project in collaboration with Eli Lilly, a company he has worked with for many years.